ph-gloss  ph-gloss2

 Picture A


Picture B 


ADULT: A shell that is fully mature
ALBINO: A shell that is entirely white, lacking any darker colouring. ( Pigmentation )
ANTERIOR: The end of the cowrie that is nearest to the head of the living mollusc. Front.
ANTERIOR COLUMELLAR TEETH: The first three or more teeth on the columellar side of the cowrie, and which are often pronounced.
APERTURE: The opening into the shell.
AXIS: An imaginary longitudinal line through the shell and around which its whorls evolve.
BASE: The flat underside of a cowry. The side of the opening, (Aperture).
BLOTCH: A isolated spot of colour.
BULLA: A fragile and very young cowrie. 
CALLUS: Accumilation, gathering of excessive shell material.
CANAL: The groove which is formed by the aperture and the openings at each end of the shell.
COLUMELLA: refers to the central axis around which the shells body is formed.
COLUMELLA SIDE: The side of the aperture that is closest to the central axis of the cowrie.
COLUMELLA PERISTOME: A callous ridge that runs longitudinally on the inside body of the shell and can be seen through the aperture.

CYPRAEIDAE: used when refering to the family in the different taxonomic groups and used for the division of cowries from other similar conchological families like Trividae and vulidae.

e.g Superfamily Cypraeace - Family Cypraeidae - {Family Ovulidae, Family Eratoidae, Family Trividae} "Allied cowries 

DENTAL INTERSTICES: The space in between the teeth.
DENTITION: The arrangment of tooth structure ( callous ridges ) framing the opening of the shell.
DEPRESSED: Lower in relation to hight, flat, wider.
DORSUM: Refering to the side of the cowrie oposite the aperture. The upper surface.
DWARF: A shell that is fully mature but smaller than usuall adult shells.  
EXTREMITIES: The front and back end of a shell. Posterior /Anterior extremities
FOSSULA: A depression on the inner lip, columellar side of the anterior aperture.
FRAMING: Spotting on the margins starts nearer to the dorsal portion of the cyp. forming a frame.
FREAK: A shell that is distorted either in shape or colour.
FRECKLING: Having irregular spotting. See pattern types 
GRANULES: Tiny bumps found on the surface of a shell.
HABITAT: The natural living enviroment of a species.
HYBRID: The outcome produced by the breeding of two biologically different species.
JUVENILE: Young, not fully developed. 
LABRUM: The lip of the aperture that is away from the columella. ( The outer lip).
LACUNAE: Having a netting of circles which are of a paler colour. See pattern types
LATERAL: pertaining to the sides.
LONGITUDINAL: Refering lengthwise, following the direction of the axis.
MARGINS: Lateral edges, the periphery of the base usually pronounced by callus.
MELANISTIC: consisting of dark colouration.
MOTTLING: Having servere blotching. Coarser and intense spotting. See pattern types
NODULE: A small bump of callous matter.
OBSOLETE: refering to a feature that is almost indistinguishable or reduced.
OCELLATED: Having spots framed with contrasting colour. See pattern types
PITTING: Tiny depressions in the surface of the shell, usually found around the bottom of the margins.
POSTERIOR: The end of the shell nearest to the rear of the mollusc when in motion. Back
PROTOCONCH: The starting point of the cowrie formed by the embryonic worls.
PUSTULES: Dense pronounced bumps but smaller than tubercles.
          ROSTRATE: Having a beak like projection at extremities.
SINISTRAL: Left handed, wound in the opposite direction, compared with regular specimens.
SPIRE: The visible part of the axis, near the posterior end, around which the shell has grown.
TEETH: Callus structures framing the aperture of cowries. see link Dentition
TERMINAL : At the extreme end of a cowrie.
TERMINAL RIDGE: On the columelar side of the shell, the first large tooth. e.g Arabica Immanis
TUBERCLE: A bump caused by accumulation of callus matter. Larger than pustules or nodules.
UMBILICATE: Having a depression around the spire.
VENTRAL: The side of the aperture, when viewing a cowrie. The base.